Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Steam Feature for May 2019

Chesapeake & Ohio 2-8-4 “Berkshire” Locomotives in the USA

The Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad began with the merger of the Virginia Central and the Covington & Ohio Railroads. It later acquired the Chicago, Cincinnati & Louisville Railroad, the Pere Marquette and the B&O. By 1987 when it was taken over by CSX it also had incorporated the Western Maryland Railroad.During World War II, the C&O turned to the 2-8-4 wheel arrangement to handle the fast freight schedule demanded by the war-time needs. The C & O had watched the development of the 2-8-4 on the Nickel Plate Road and the Pere Marquette through the “Advisory Mechanical Committee” which was common to the four railroads controlled by the Van Sweringens. It based its 2-8-4 design on the NKP and Pere Marquette “Berkshires”. However it chose to name them “Kanawhas” after the Kanawha River, which paralleled its main line.

Between 1943 and 1947, the C & O purchased ninety, Class K-4, 2-8-4 “Kanawhas”, twenty from the Lima Locomotive Works and seventy from the American Locomotive Company. These locomotives were numbered 2700 through 2789. All of these locomotives had 69″ diameter drivers, 26″ x 34″ cylinders, a 245 psi boiler pressure, they exerted 69,350 pounds of tractive effort and each weighed about 292,500 pounds.

By mid 1952, the C & O had received enough diesels that it began to retire even the “Kanawhas”, which still had service time, and by 1957 all were retired. All but the thirteen that were donated to various cities were scrapped by May 1961.

The City of Buffalo, NY received number 2701 and placed it on display near the waterfront where vandals wrecked it and it was scrapped. There are twelve surviving C&O 2-8-4 “Kanawha” type locomotives.

Roster

Class Qty. Road Numbers Year Built Builder Notes
K-4 14 2700-2713 1943 ALCO 1
K-4 26 2714-2739 1944 ALCO 2
K-4 10 2740-2749 1945 Lima 3
K-4 10 2750-2759 1947 Lima 4
K-4 30 2760-2789 1947 ALCO 5
Notes
  1. The C&O donated 2701 to the city of Buffalo, NY. It was placed on display near the waterfront where vandals wrecked it so bad that it had to be scrapped after being on display for only a few months. Numbers 2700, 2705 and 2707 are preserved. All the others scrapped by 1961.
  2. Numbers 2716, 2727, 2732 and 2736 are preserved. All the others scrapped by 1961.
  3. Numbers 2740-2749 scrapped by 1961.
  4. Numbers 2755 and 2756 are preserved. All the others scrapped by 1961.
  5. Numbers 2760, 2776 and 2789 are preserved. All the others scrapped by 1961.

Class Details by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media

Class K-4 (Locobase 55)

Data from tables in 1947 Locomotive Cyclopedia and from C&O – 4 – 1947 Locomotive Diagrams supplied in May 2005 by Allen Stanley from his extensive Rail Data Exchange. (Thanks to Chris Hohl for the tip about the Baker gear and for catching an error in the 1st built date and his 22 September 2017 email reporting unlikely boiler pressure values for 177 entries. A Locobase macro caused the error .) The first 40 came from Alco in 1943 and 1944, Lima supplied the next 20 in 1945 and 1947, and Alco finished the class with 30 more in 1947.

Firebox had 103 sq ft (9.5 sq m) in two thermic syphons and 19 sq ft (1.75 sq m) in arch tubes. Long-stroke cylinders were served by 14″ (356 mm) piston valves. All axles turned inside Timken roller bearings, feed water heaters were Worthington Type 5 1/2 S SAs, and the coal moved through Standard HT automatic stokers. Called “Kanawhas” by the railroad, “Big Mikes” by the Chessie drivers. Very similar to Pere Marquette N-1s but heavier and pulling immense tenders. In fact, these K-4s were among the heaviest and longest 2-8-4s in service and were known for good performance. Farrington (1976) notes a run from Stevens to Russell (95/4,845 tons), then from Russell to Hinton (61/3,170 tons) in which the engine consumed 49,500 gallons of water and 25 tons of coal.

Principal Dimensions by Steve Llanso of Sweat House Media
Class K-4
Locobase ID 55
Railroad Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O)
Country USA
Whyte 2-8-4
Number in Class 90
Road Numbers 2700-2789
Gauge Std
Number Built 90
Builder Several
Year 1943
Valve Gear Baker
Locomotive Length and Weight
Driver Wheelbase (ft / m) 18.20 / 5.55
Engine Wheelbase (ft / m) 42 / 12.80
Ratio of driving wheelbase to overall engine wheebase 0.43
Overall Wheelbase (engine & tender) (ft / m) 93.17 / 28.40
Axle Loading (Maximum Weight per Axle) (lbs / kg) 73,800 / 33,475
Weight on Drivers (lbs / kg) 292,000 / 132,449
Engine Weight (lbs / kg) 460,000 / 208,653
Tender Loaded Weight (lbs / kg) 388,000 / 175,994
Total Engine and Tender Weight (lbs / kg) 848,000 / 384,647
Tender Water Capacity (gals / ML) 21,000 / 79.55
Tender Fuel Capacity (oil/coal) (gals/tons / ML/MT) 30 / 27.30
Minimum weight of rail (calculated) (lb/yd / kg/m) 122 / 61
Geometry Relating to Tractive Effort
Driver Diameter (in / mm) 69 / 1753
Boiler Pressure (psi / kPa) 245 / 16.90
High Pressure Cylinders (dia x stroke) (in / mm) 26″ x 34″ / 660×864
Tractive Effort (lbs / kg) 69,368 / 31464.83
Factor of Adhesion (Weight on Drivers/Tractive Effort) 4.21
Heating Ability
Firebox Area (sq ft / m2) 462 / 42.92
Grate Area (sq ft / m2) 90.30 / 8.39
Evaporative Heating Surface (sq ft / m2) 4773 / 443.59
Superheating Surface (sq ft / m2) 1932 / 179.55
Combined Heating Surface (sq ft / m2) 6705 / 623.14
Evaporative Heating Surface/Cylinder Volume 228.45
Computations Relating to Power Output (More Information)
Robert LeMassena’s Power Computation 22,124
Same as above plus superheater percentage 28,539
Same as above but substitute firebox area for grate area 146,015
Power L1 33,000
Power MT 996.61

Featured C&O Railway steam subjects for this May post are 2700 Class K-4s in various Kentucky, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia locations:

  • C&O #2702 – Russell, KY – 7/4/52
  • C&O #2704 – Russell, KY – 7/4/52
  • C&O #2706 – Silver Creek, KY – 10/26/49
  • C&O #2710 – Russell, KY – 7/4/50
  • C&O #2711 – Silver Grove, KY – 10/8/49
  • C&O #2716 – Cincinnati, OH – 4/17/51
  • C&O #2724 – Cincinnati, OH – 4/11/51
  • C&O #2731 – Handley, WV – 3/15/56
  • C&O #2760 – Russell, KY – 4/2/51
  • C&O #2764 – Clifton Forge, VA – 2/6/53

Article courtesy of SteamLocomotive.com. All photos courtesy of www.rr-fallenflags.org.


Rock on Trains © 2019, Tom Rock + T.D.R. Productions. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from Tom Rock is strictly prohibited.

Depot Doings: Avon, NY / Demarest, NJ / Industry, NY / Lisbon, OH / Salamanca, NY / Susquehanna, PA

Featured Erie Railroad depots on the blog this month are those in New York, New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania:

  • ERIE Depot – Avon, NY – 6/14/10
  • ERIE Depot – Demarest, NJ – Date Unknown
  • ERIE Depot – Industry, NY – 6/13/10
  • ERIE Depot – Lisbon, OH – 7/20/11
  • ERIE Depot – Salamanca, NY – 8/15/09
  • ERIE Depot – Susquehanna, PA – 6/7/10

All photos courtesy of DepotMaps.com.


Rock on Trains © 2019, Tom Rock + T.D.R. Productions. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from Tom Rock is strictly prohibited.

Depot Doings: Bellefonte, PA / Christiana, PA / Lima, OH / New Freedom, PA / Overbrook, PA / Richmond, IN

Featured Pennsylvania Railroad depots on the blog this month include various locations in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana:

  • PRR Depot – Bellefonte, PA – Date and source unknown
  • PRR Depot – Christiana, PA – 4/24/10
  • PRR Depot – Lima, OH – Date and source unknown
  • PRR Depot – New Freedom, PA – 4/24/10
  • PRR Depot – Overbrook, PA – 4/25/10
  • PRR Depot – Richmond, IN – Date and source unknown

All photos courtesy of DepotMaps.com.


Rock on Trains © 2019, Tom Rock + T.D.R. Productions. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from Tom Rock is strictly prohibited.

Norfolk & Western Steam Feature for January 2019

Featured Norfolk & Western steam subjects for this January post include various locations in Columbus, Ohio and Roanoke, Virginia:

  • N&W #133 – Columbus, OH – 8/8/56
  • N&W #422 – Columbus, OH – 8/14/56
  • N&W #610 – Roanoke, VA – 8/7/56
  • N&W #1209 – Columbus, OH – 8/8/56
  • N&W #2084 – Roanoke, VA – 8/7/56
  • N&W #2149 – Roanoke, VA – 8/7/56
  • N&W #2169 – Roanoke, VA – 8/7/56
  • N&W #2176 – Roanoke, VA – 8/7/56

All photos courtesy of Mr. John Dziobko, Jr., GodFatherRails.com.


Rock on Trains © 2019, Tom Rock + T.D.R. Productions. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from Tom Rock is strictly prohibited.

Detroit, Toledo & Ironton Steam Feature for November 2018

Featured Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railroad steam subjects for this November post include various locations in Ohio:

  • DT&I #200 – Springfield, OH – 2/39
  • DT&I #412 – Jackson, OH – 9/52
  • DT&I #417 – Jackson, OH – 9/52
  • DT&I #700 – Springfield, OH – 6/41
  • DT&I #702 – Springfield, OH – 4/21/42
  • DT&I #705 – Jackson, OH – 6/50

All photos courtesy of www.rr-fallenflags.org.


Rock on Trains © 2018, Tom Rock + T.D.R. Productions. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from Tom Rock is strictly prohibited.

Chattanooga Choo-Choo History

TERMINAL STATION – CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE

A challenge went out in 1900 by the architectural students at Beaux Arts Institute in Paris, France.  The students offered themselves a prize for the best plans which could be drawn up for a railroad station that would suit the needs of a large city.  The winner of the prize was Mr. Don Barber, an American from New York City.

In 1904, when the president of the Southern Railway decided to build a new passenger terminal in Chattanooga, one architect who offered an entry was none other than the same Mr. Barber.  When Southern Railway’s president saw Barber’s design, he was very much impressed.  He said he felt the exterior plans were perfect but asked Barber if he could possibly alter the interior design.  Upon this request, the Grand Dome was created.  It is completely free standing and rests on four major steel supports 75 feet apart.  The dome’s underside, which covered the 68 by 82 foot general waiting room, was decorated in artistic plaster embellishments of heraldic emblems.  For those nocturnal passengers who would frequent this 24 hour station, illumination was provided by four ornate brass chandeliers, each containing 40 lights and each centered by an 18-inch opal globe.  When these lights were on, the dome was truly lavish in its different prismatic colors.

On a bitterly cold winter morning, December 1, 1909, a crowd of several hundred gathered in the 1400 block of Market Street for the dedication of Chattanooga’s Terminal Station.  After serving Chattanooga for 61 years, the Southern Railway closed the building August 11, 1970.  It was purchased, restored, and reopened to the public in April 1973 and entered on the National Register of Historic Places by the U.S. Dept. of Interior on January 25, 1974.

On March 5, 1880, the first passenger train connecting the north with the south traveled from Cincinnati, Ohio south to Chattanooga, Tennessee on the first municipal railroad, the Cincinnati Southern Line.  A reporter dubbed the train the “Chattanooga Choo-Choo,” and Big Band leader Glenn Miller and the Modernaires immortalized this legendary train in song May 7, 1941.

When the Southern Railway closed this magnificent architectural icon on August 11, 1970, a piece of Chattanooga was forever lost.  Thankfully, it was spared the wrecking ball as so many others were not as fortunate.  These following photos surely tell a story of a more pristine time–a time when traveling by rail was so much more relaxing compared to today.  Hopefully, these photos will stir many a long lost memory.

Photo Credit: Copyright 2009, Justin W. Strickland, “Images of Rail – Chattanooga’s Terminal Station.”

Rock on Trains © 2018, Tom Rock + T.D.R. Productions. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from Tom Rock is strictly prohibited.

Depot Doings: Carlyle, IL / East Salmanca, NY / Deshler, OH / Fostoria, OH / Eidenau, PA / Evans City, PA

Featured Baltimore & Ohio Railway depots on the blog this month are those in Illinois, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania:

  • B&O Depot – Carlyle, IL – 10/29/86
  • B&O Depot – East Salmanca, NY – 8/86
  • B&O Depot – Deshler, OH – 9/13/12
  • B&O Depot – Fostoria, OH – 7/16/12
  • B&O Depot – Eidenau, PA – 10/64
  • B&O Depot – Evans City, PA – 7/24/63

All photos courtesy of www.rr-fallenflags.org.


Rock on Trains © 2018, Tom Rock + T.D.R. Productions. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from Tom Rock is strictly prohibited.